Arbeits-, Organisations- und Marktpsychologie

Journal Artikel von 2021

Okimoto, T. G., Konradt, U., Krys, S., & Dawson, N. (2021). A person-centered approach to understanding endorsement of restorative justice in response to workplace mistreatment. 

Social Justice Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-021-00377-w

Abstract

There is growing body of research investigating endorsement of restorative justice as a response to interpersonal transgressions, but a limited understanding of how endorsement varies across different individuals – for whom is restorative justice seen as an appropriate response? The current research seeks to address this limitation by identifying natural heterogeneity in endorsement of restorative justice. We employ a policy-capturing within-subject design to examine restorative justice endorsement following workplace mistreatment by a supervisor at different levels of severity. Latent growth curve analyses indicated support for restorative justice increased with more unfair treatment, but following a concave, curvilinear slope. Latent class analysis suggested heterogeneity in endorsement patterns. Class 1 (66%) comprised individuals with a low initial level of restorative endorsement and a curvilinear growth trajectory as offense severity increased, while Class 2 (33%) comprised individuals with a medium initial level and a linear growth trajectory. We also examined victim-focused justice sensitivity as a predictor of class membership; but in line with past research, we did not find a significant relationship between victim sensitivity and restorative justice endorsement. These findings identify previously unrecognized heterogeneity in patterns of restorative justice endorsement, pointing to differences in the lay understanding of the when and where restorative processes should be applied. More broadly, this research illustrates how we can utilize person-centered approaches to shed new light on established justice research and theory.

 

 

Oldeweme, M., Konradt, U., & Brede, M. (in press). The rhythm of teamwork: discovering a complex temporal pattern of team processes.

Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice.

Abstract

Objektive: The recurring phase model of team processes suggests the existence of a rhythm of team task accomplishment, which refers to a repeated sequence of transition and action phases over time. Drawing on this model, we provide the first empirical investigation of whether different types of teamwork rhythm emerge, whether the rhythm varies according to the type of task, and whether the rhythm is related to team performance.

Method: We observed and videoed student teams (N = 48) working on two different tasks (a creative and a construction task) in a laboratory setting. Team processes were coded and assigned to transition or action phases using a custom algorithm. The rhythm of teamwork for each team was determined using the four parameters of tempo, regularity of tempo, focus (transition vs. action), and variability of focus.

Results: Latent profile analysis revealed three distinct rhythms of teamwork across both tasks: a slow and action-oriented rhythm, a fast and regular rhythm, and a changing-focus rhythm. The results also show that the majority of the teams (63.04%) changed rhythm type between the tasks. Moreover, for the creative task, a changing-focus rhythm was predictive of lower performance (= 0.25 – 0.48), whereas for the construction task no association was found between rhythm and performance.

Conclusions: The study provides a methodological procedure for analyzing the rhythm of teamwork, and offers some initial insights into the types of teamwork rhythms and their association with type of tasks and levels of performance.

 

 

Michel-Kröhler, A., Krys, S., & Berti, S. (2021). Development and preliminary validation of the sports competition rumination scale (SCRS).

Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2021.1961921

Abstract

This article presents the development and the preliminary validation of the Sports Competition Rumination Scale (SCRS). The SCRS is designed to measure ruminative thoughts referring to competition-related problems in athletes. It is an adapted version of an existing rumination scale in which we have changed the context for sport-specific purposes. The SCRS consists of eight items, which capture key characteristics of rumination (e.g., repetitiveness, intrusiveness) in the competitive context. In two studies, we investigated its construct validity in terms of its factorial validity and its position within a nomological network. Data collected from 355 athletes (NStudy1 = 157, NStudy2 = 198) revealed a good factorial validity for the scale across samples. The SCRS showed a good internal consistency. Moreover, moderate relations to established rumination measures from clinical and general psychology supported its position in the nomological network. In addition, the SCRS showed low to moderate relations to different general as well as sports-specific anxiety measures. The present study provides an important preliminary evidence for a useful, reliable, and ecological measure of rumination about competition-related problems.

 

 

Konradt, U., Schippers, M. C., Krys, S., & Fulmer, A. (2021).Teams in transition: A three-wave longitudinal study of reflection, implicit and explicit coordination and performance improvements.

Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.677896

Abstract

Research has shown that team reflection is a critical transition process for coordination processes and team performance, but our understanding of its dynamics and relationship to action processes and performance is incomplete. The goal of the present study was to examine the long-term change in reflection in teams over time and explore whether these changes are related to implicit and explicit coordination processes and performance improvement. Drawing on the recurring phase model of team processes and team reflexivity theory, we hypothesized that team reflection is at least stable or increases over time for dissimilar tasks, that reflection trajectories are positively associated with implicit and negatively associated with explicit coordination in the later phases, and that implicit coordination mediates the relationship between team reflection and performance improvement. This model was tested in a three-wave longitudinal study (N = 175 teams) over a two-month period. Results from growth curve modeling and structural equation modeling provided support for our hypotheses.

 

Konradt, U., Ellwart, T. & Gevers, J. (2021). Wasting Effort or Wasting Time? A Longitudinal Study of Pacing Styles as a Predictor of Academic Performance. 

Learning and Individual Differences, 88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2021.102003

Abstract

Students' time and effort investments are a critical predictor of academic performance. However, little is known about how effort distribution in exam preparation affects exam performance. In a five-wave longitudinal field study, we investigated how students' pacing styles (i.e., the allocation of effort over time during exam preparation) relate to the effectiveness and efficiency of performance. We also examined whether behaviour-focused self-leadership strategies predict students' pacing styles. Nonlinear latent class growth analyses revealed four distinct pacing style patterns that correspond to those found in organizational contexts: effort investment is allocated towards the deadline (45.1%), steady (35.0%), inverted U-shaped (10.7%) and U-shaped (9.0%). Behaviour-oriented self-leadership strategies predicted these patterns of effort investment. Pacing styles were equally effective, but students with a deadline action pacing style showed significantly higher efficiency compared to their counterparts. This research adds essential insight into the antecedents and consequences of pacing styles in an academic context and confirms its relevance for understanding academic achievement.

 

Oldeweme, M., Konradt, U., & Garbers, Y. (2021). Effects of Situational Factors on Team Planning: A Policy-Capturing Approach.

German Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 65, 68-81. https://doi.org/10.1026/0932-4089/a000348 

Abstract

Although there has long been a consensus in team research that planning generally has a positive impact on performance, very little is known about how input factors (e.g., situational factors) affect the planning behavior of teams. In addition, the various dimensions of planning remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examine the effects of time pressure, task routine, and decision importance on team planning. We suggest that planning consists of four dimensions: exploration, strategic planning, detailed planning, and prognosis. In two policy-capturing studies, undergraduates and employees were presented with a series of hypothetical scenarios and asked to indicate in each case how they might plan for these if working as part of a team. Results from our Bayesian multilevel analyses revealed that teams overall used less planning when they were under acute time pressure, when tasks were very routine, and when the decisions involved were of little importance.