Arbeits-, Organisations- und Marktpsychologie

Journal Artikel von 2020

Konradt, U., Oldeweme, M., Krys, S., & Otte, K.-P. (2020). A meta-analysis of change in applicants' perceptions of fairness.

International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 28(4), 365-382.


Using an event‐triggered multi‐stage framework, this random‐effects meta‐analysis examined the changes in applicants' perceptions of fairness between consecutive stages and throughout the entire personnel selection process. We integrated findings of studies with at least two measurement points, resulting in 45 effect sizes (overall N = 3,038). Trajectories of perceptions of fairness decreased nonlinearly across the process, with a steeper decrease for people who held high levels of initial fairness expectations. Unjust treatment produced a decrease in perceptions of fairness from pretest to posttest and an increase from posttest to postdecision. Furthermore, the length of the time interval moderated the changes in fairness perceptions between the posttest and postdecision stage. Practical implications and an agenda for future research are discussed.


Konradt, U., Heblich, F., Krys, S., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K.-P. (2020). Beneficial, adverse, and spiraling health-promotion effects: Evidence from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of working at sit-stand-desks.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 25(1), 68–81.


In a six-month longitudinal randomized field experiment, we examined how using height-adjustable sit-stand desks (SSDs) could have beneficial, adverse, and spiraling effects on people’s musculoskeletal and psychovegetative complaints, and on positive (vitality and vigilance) and negative psychological symptoms, namely stressor uncontrollability (i.e., perceived uncontrollability of workload), psychological tension, and mental tiredness. One-hundred and twenty-seven employees in various, mostly sedentary, occupations were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Variables were assessed monthly for six months on a self-reported basis. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that the intervention produced large inhibiting between-subject effects for musculoskeletal problems in the neck, back, and shoulders (β ranged between -.26 and -.21). Within-subject analyses revealed that the intervention produced large inhibiting effect sizes for intensity (g = 3.06) and prevalence of musculoskeletal (g = 1.19) and psychovegetative complaints (g between 0.76 and 1.57). For negative psychological symptoms (i.e., psychological tension and mental tiredness), participants in the intervention group showed a steeper decrease than participants in the control group (g between 2.34 and 3.74). For positive indicators (i.e., vitality and vigilance), the intervention produced large promoting effects for participants in the intervention group compared to participants in the control group (g between 0.70 and 1.65). There was no change in stressor uncontrollability between the two groups. Finally, findings suggest that SSDs can be effective in improving occupational health by weakening a downward-spiraling effect.


Konradt, U., Okimoto, T., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K. (2020), The shape of justice repair: Asymmetric nonlinear retributive and restorative justice effects to unfair supervisor treatment.

International Journal of Conflict Management, 31, 149-173.



The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of supervisor’s unfair treatment on follower’s retributive and restorative justice perceptions. The main goal is to find asymmetric nonlinear trajectories in the relationship between the severity of unfair treatment and employees’ orientation toward retributive/restorative justice.


Using an experimental policy-capturing design that varied five levels of transgression severity (none to very high) within supervisor–subordinate relationship injustice situations, 168 employees rated their retributive/restorative justice preferences. Latent growth curve modeling was used to fit the overall patterns of change.


As hypothesized, the trajectory of restorative justice was convex and progressed in a negative exponential shape, whereas the restorative justice trajectory was concave but followed a less steep positive exponential shape. Results show differing initial levels of restorative and retributive justice, with higher initial levels in retributive justice predicting a greater increase in retributive justice as treatment becomes less fair.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is a threat to the external validity of the results. Scenario-based surveys may not fully generalize to actual organizational situations.

Practical implications

These findings help managers to understand how unjust treatment can shape employees’ expectations and, thus, address it adequately. This is important to retain qualified personnel and to minimize workplace disengagement in the aftermath of poor treatment.

Social implications

Restorative justice is of great importance for minor and moderate violations of justice.


By illustrating different trajectories, this study extends research on restorative and retributive justice in organizations. The results help to understand when people expect restoration and are motivated to punish wrongdoers.




Krys, S. (2020). Goal-directed rumination and its antagonistic effects on problem solving: A two-week diary study.

Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33, 530-544.


Background: The tendency to repetitively and intrusively think about a particular negative event, goal failure, or problem (i.e., goal-directed rumination) is generally associated with impairments in well-being, thus decreasing performance in solving this failure. However, rumination is also associated with higher levels of resources invested in problem solving, likely leading to an improvement in performance. Objectives: The current study thus examines the indirect effect of rumination via various mediators on subjective problem-solving performance in the everyday context. Design: Over a period of two weeks, 147 students completed a brief survey each evening (i.e., diary study). Methods: Data were analyzed by means of a multiple mediation model in the multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) framework. Results: The analyses revealed that perceived stress and negative mood negatively mediated the relationship between rumination and problem solving, while attention and effort positively mediated this relationship. Finally, both a negative direct and total effect of rumination on problem solving was observed. Conclusions: Conclusively, goal-directed rumination exerted a negative indirect effect on subjective problem solving via perceived stress and negative mood, whereas it positively affected problem solving via attention and effort. Possible limitations and implications are discussed.



Krys, S., Otte, K.-P., & Knipfer, K. (2020). Academic performance: A longitudinal study on the role of goal-directed rumination and psychological distress.

Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33, 545-559.


Background: In this research, we examine the relationship between goal-directed rumination, psychological distress, and performance. Although previous research has largely contributed to our understanding of how these constructs are related, the direction of their relationships remains unclear. Objectives: We argue that goal-directed rumination and psychological distress (conceived as perceived stress and strain) are reciprocally related, and that goal-directed rumination has a positive effect on performance when controlling for the negative effect of psychological distress. Design: We explored these relationships in a longitudinal field study, drawing on multiple sources: self-reports of 147 students on goal-directed rumination and psychological distress and objective ratings of academic performance. Method: Based on structural equation modelling, we employed a random-intercept cross-lagged panel model and hierarchical regressions to examine our hypotheses. Results: We demonstrated that goal-directed rumination predicted perceived stress one week later but not vice versa, while its relationship to strain was less clear. Furthermore, goal-directed rumination positively predicted academic performance when we controlled for psychological distress. Conclusions: We found evidence for a unidirectional relationship between goal-directed rumination and psychological distress, especially for perceived stress. Additionally, we observed that psychological distress diminishes the beneficial effect of goal-directed rumination on academic performance.