Arbeits-, Organisations- und Marktpsychologie

Journal Artikel von 2020

Konradt, U., Oldeweme, M., Krys, S., & Otte, K.-P. (2020). A meta-analysis of change in applicants' perceptions of fairness. 

International Journal of Selection and Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijsa.12305

Abstract

Using an event‐triggered multi‐stage framework, this random‐effects meta‐analysis examined the changes in applicants' perceptions of fairness between consecutive stages and throughout the entire personnel selection process. We integrated findings of studies with at least two measurement points, resulting in 45 effect sizes (overall N = 3,038). Trajectories of perceptions of fairness decreased nonlinearly across the process, with a steeper decrease for people who held high levels of initial fairness expectations. Unjust treatment produced a decrease in perceptions of fairness from pretest to posttest and an increase from posttest to postdecision. Furthermore, the length of the time interval moderated the changes in fairness perceptions between the posttest and postdecision stage. Practical implications and an agenda for future research are discussed.

 

Konradt, U., Heblich, F., Krys, S., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K.-P. (2020). Beneficial, adverse, and spiraling health-promotion effects: Evidence from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of working at sit-stand-desks.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 25(1), 68–81. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000161

Abstract

In a six-month longitudinal randomized field experiment, we examined how using height-adjustable sit-stand desks (SSDs) could have beneficial, adverse, and spiraling effects on people’s musculoskeletal and psychovegetative complaints, and on positive (vitality and vigilance) and negative psychological symptoms, namely stressor uncontrollability (i.e., perceived uncontrollability of workload), psychological tension, and mental tiredness. One-hundred and twenty-seven employees in various, mostly sedentary, occupations were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Variables were assessed monthly for six months on a self-reported basis. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that the intervention produced large inhibiting between-subject effects for musculoskeletal problems in the neck, back, and shoulders (β ranged between -.26 and -.21). Within-subject analyses revealed that the intervention produced large inhibiting effect sizes for intensity (g = 3.06) and prevalence of musculoskeletal (g = 1.19) and psychovegetative complaints (g between 0.76 and 1.57). For negative psychological symptoms (i.e., psychological tension and mental tiredness), participants in the intervention group showed a steeper decrease than participants in the control group (g between 2.34 and 3.74). For positive indicators (i.e., vitality and vigilance), the intervention produced large promoting effects for participants in the intervention group compared to participants in the control group (g between 0.70 and 1.65). There was no change in stressor uncontrollability between the two groups. Finally, findings suggest that SSDs can be effective in improving occupational health by weakening a downward-spiraling effect.

 

Konradt, U., Okimoto, T., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K. (2020), The shape of justice repair: Asymmetric nonlinear retributive and restorative justice effects to unfair supervisor treatment.

International Journal of Conflict Management, 31, 149-173. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCMA-06-2019-0096

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of supervisor’s unfair treatment on follower’s retributive and restorative justice perceptions. The main goal is to find asymmetric nonlinear trajectories in the relationship between the severity of unfair treatment and employees’ orientation toward retributive/restorative justice.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experimental policy-capturing design that varied five levels of transgression severity (none to very high) within supervisor–subordinate relationship injustice situations, 168 employees rated their retributive/restorative justice preferences. Latent growth curve modeling was used to fit the overall patterns of change.

Findings

As hypothesized, the trajectory of restorative justice was convex and progressed in a negative exponential shape, whereas the restorative justice trajectory was concave but followed a less steep positive exponential shape. Results show differing initial levels of restorative and retributive justice, with higher initial levels in retributive justice predicting a greater increase in retributive justice as treatment becomes less fair.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is a threat to the external validity of the results. Scenario-based surveys may not fully generalize to actual organizational situations.

Practical implications

These findings help managers to understand how unjust treatment can shape employees’ expectations and, thus, address it adequately. This is important to retain qualified personnel and to minimize workplace disengagement in the aftermath of poor treatment.

Social implications

Restorative justice is of great importance for minor and moderate violations of justice.

Originality/value

By illustrating different trajectories, this study extends research on restorative and retributive justice in organizations. The results help to understand when people expect restoration and are motivated to punish wrongdoers.