Arbeits-, Organisations- und Marktpsychologie

Artikel aus Journals

Für Kopien und pdfs bitte an Sandra Florean wenden.

Über die Navigation auf der linken Seite können einzelne Jahre isoliert ausgewählt werden.

Journal Artikel von 2021

Okimoto, T. G., Konradt, U., Krys, S., & Dawson, N. (2021). A person-centered approach to understanding endorsement of restorative justice in response to workplace mistreatment. 

Social Justice Research.


There is growing body of research investigating endorsement of restorative justice as a response to interpersonal transgressions, but a limited understanding of how endorsement varies across different individuals – for whom is restorative justice seen as an appropriate response? The current research seeks to address this limitation by identifying natural heterogeneity in endorsement of restorative justice. We employ a policy-capturing within-subject design to examine restorative justice endorsement following workplace mistreatment by a supervisor at different levels of severity. Latent growth curve analyses indicated support for restorative justice increased with more unfair treatment, but following a concave, curvilinear slope. Latent class analysis suggested heterogeneity in endorsement patterns. Class 1 (66%) comprised individuals with a low initial level of restorative endorsement and a curvilinear growth trajectory as offense severity increased, while Class 2 (33%) comprised individuals with a medium initial level and a linear growth trajectory. We also examined victim-focused justice sensitivity as a predictor of class membership; but in line with past research, we did not find a significant relationship between victim sensitivity and restorative justice endorsement. These findings identify previously unrecognized heterogeneity in patterns of restorative justice endorsement, pointing to differences in the lay understanding of the when and where restorative processes should be applied. More broadly, this research illustrates how we can utilize person-centered approaches to shed new light on established justice research and theory.



Oldeweme, M., Konradt, U., & Brede, M. (in press). The rhythm of teamwork: discovering a complex temporal pattern of team processes.

Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice.


Objektive: The recurring phase model of team processes suggests the existence of a rhythm of team task accomplishment, which refers to a repeated sequence of transition and action phases over time. Drawing on this model, we provide the first empirical investigation of whether different types of teamwork rhythm emerge, whether the rhythm varies according to the type of task, and whether the rhythm is related to team performance.

Method: We observed and videoed student teams (N = 48) working on two different tasks (a creative and a construction task) in a laboratory setting. Team processes were coded and assigned to transition or action phases using a custom algorithm. The rhythm of teamwork for each team was determined using the four parameters of tempo, regularity of tempo, focus (transition vs. action), and variability of focus.

Results: Latent profile analysis revealed three distinct rhythms of teamwork across both tasks: a slow and action-oriented rhythm, a fast and regular rhythm, and a changing-focus rhythm. The results also show that the majority of the teams (63.04%) changed rhythm type between the tasks. Moreover, for the creative task, a changing-focus rhythm was predictive of lower performance (= 0.25 – 0.48), whereas for the construction task no association was found between rhythm and performance.

Conclusions: The study provides a methodological procedure for analyzing the rhythm of teamwork, and offers some initial insights into the types of teamwork rhythms and their association with type of tasks and levels of performance.



Michel-Kröhler, A., Krys, S., & Berti, S. (2021). Development and preliminary validation of the sports competition rumination scale (SCRS).

Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1-19.


This article presents the development and the preliminary validation of the Sports Competition Rumination Scale (SCRS). The SCRS is designed to measure ruminative thoughts referring to competition-related problems in athletes. It is an adapted version of an existing rumination scale in which we have changed the context for sport-specific purposes. The SCRS consists of eight items, which capture key characteristics of rumination (e.g., repetitiveness, intrusiveness) in the competitive context. In two studies, we investigated its construct validity in terms of its factorial validity and its position within a nomological network. Data collected from 355 athletes (NStudy1 = 157, NStudy2 = 198) revealed a good factorial validity for the scale across samples. The SCRS showed a good internal consistency. Moreover, moderate relations to established rumination measures from clinical and general psychology supported its position in the nomological network. In addition, the SCRS showed low to moderate relations to different general as well as sports-specific anxiety measures. The present study provides an important preliminary evidence for a useful, reliable, and ecological measure of rumination about competition-related problems.



Konradt, U., Schippers, M. C., Krys, S., & Fulmer, A. (2021).Teams in transition: A three-wave longitudinal study of reflection, implicit and explicit coordination and performance improvements.

Frontiers in Psychology, 12.


Research has shown that team reflection is a critical transition process for coordination processes and team performance, but our understanding of its dynamics and relationship to action processes and performance is incomplete. The goal of the present study was to examine the long-term change in reflection in teams over time and explore whether these changes are related to implicit and explicit coordination processes and performance improvement. Drawing on the recurring phase model of team processes and team reflexivity theory, we hypothesized that team reflection is at least stable or increases over time for dissimilar tasks, that reflection trajectories are positively associated with implicit and negatively associated with explicit coordination in the later phases, and that implicit coordination mediates the relationship between team reflection and performance improvement. This model was tested in a three-wave longitudinal study (N = 175 teams) over a two-month period. Results from growth curve modeling and structural equation modeling provided support for our hypotheses.


Konradt, U., Ellwart, T. & Gevers, J. (2021). Wasting Effort or Wasting Time? A Longitudinal Study of Pacing Styles as a Predictor of Academic Performance. 

Learning and Individual Differences, 88.


Students' time and effort investments are a critical predictor of academic performance. However, little is known about how effort distribution in exam preparation affects exam performance. In a five-wave longitudinal field study, we investigated how students' pacing styles (i.e., the allocation of effort over time during exam preparation) relate to the effectiveness and efficiency of performance. We also examined whether behaviour-focused self-leadership strategies predict students' pacing styles. Nonlinear latent class growth analyses revealed four distinct pacing style patterns that correspond to those found in organizational contexts: effort investment is allocated towards the deadline (45.1%), steady (35.0%), inverted U-shaped (10.7%) and U-shaped (9.0%). Behaviour-oriented self-leadership strategies predicted these patterns of effort investment. Pacing styles were equally effective, but students with a deadline action pacing style showed significantly higher efficiency compared to their counterparts. This research adds essential insight into the antecedents and consequences of pacing styles in an academic context and confirms its relevance for understanding academic achievement.


Oldeweme, M., Konradt, U., & Garbers, Y. (2021). Effects of Situational Factors on Team Planning: A Policy-Capturing Approach.

German Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 65, 68-81. 


Although there has long been a consensus in team research that planning generally has a positive impact on performance, very little is known about how input factors (e.g., situational factors) affect the planning behavior of teams. In addition, the various dimensions of planning remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examine the effects of time pressure, task routine, and decision importance on team planning. We suggest that planning consists of four dimensions: exploration, strategic planning, detailed planning, and prognosis. In two policy-capturing studies, undergraduates and employees were presented with a series of hypothetical scenarios and asked to indicate in each case how they might plan for these if working as part of a team. Results from our Bayesian multilevel analyses revealed that teams overall used less planning when they were under acute time pressure, when tasks were very routine, and when the decisions involved were of little importance.

Journal Artikel von 2020

Konradt, U., Oldeweme, M., Krys, S., & Otte, K.-P. (2020). A meta-analysis of change in applicants' perceptions of fairness.

International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 28(4), 365-382.


Using an event‐triggered multi‐stage framework, this random‐effects meta‐analysis examined the changes in applicants' perceptions of fairness between consecutive stages and throughout the entire personnel selection process. We integrated findings of studies with at least two measurement points, resulting in 45 effect sizes (overall N = 3,038). Trajectories of perceptions of fairness decreased nonlinearly across the process, with a steeper decrease for people who held high levels of initial fairness expectations. Unjust treatment produced a decrease in perceptions of fairness from pretest to posttest and an increase from posttest to postdecision. Furthermore, the length of the time interval moderated the changes in fairness perceptions between the posttest and postdecision stage. Practical implications and an agenda for future research are discussed.


Konradt, U., Heblich, F., Krys, S., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K.-P. (2020). Beneficial, adverse, and spiraling health-promotion effects: Evidence from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of working at sit-stand-desks.

Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 25(1), 68–81.


In a six-month longitudinal randomized field experiment, we examined how using height-adjustable sit-stand desks (SSDs) could have beneficial, adverse, and spiraling effects on people’s musculoskeletal and psychovegetative complaints, and on positive (vitality and vigilance) and negative psychological symptoms, namely stressor uncontrollability (i.e., perceived uncontrollability of workload), psychological tension, and mental tiredness. One-hundred and twenty-seven employees in various, mostly sedentary, occupations were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Variables were assessed monthly for six months on a self-reported basis. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that the intervention produced large inhibiting between-subject effects for musculoskeletal problems in the neck, back, and shoulders (β ranged between -.26 and -.21). Within-subject analyses revealed that the intervention produced large inhibiting effect sizes for intensity (g = 3.06) and prevalence of musculoskeletal (g = 1.19) and psychovegetative complaints (g between 0.76 and 1.57). For negative psychological symptoms (i.e., psychological tension and mental tiredness), participants in the intervention group showed a steeper decrease than participants in the control group (g between 2.34 and 3.74). For positive indicators (i.e., vitality and vigilance), the intervention produced large promoting effects for participants in the intervention group compared to participants in the control group (g between 0.70 and 1.65). There was no change in stressor uncontrollability between the two groups. Finally, findings suggest that SSDs can be effective in improving occupational health by weakening a downward-spiraling effect.


Konradt, U., Okimoto, T., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K. (2020), The shape of justice repair: Asymmetric nonlinear retributive and restorative justice effects to unfair supervisor treatment.

International Journal of Conflict Management, 31, 149-173.



The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of supervisor’s unfair treatment on follower’s retributive and restorative justice perceptions. The main goal is to find asymmetric nonlinear trajectories in the relationship between the severity of unfair treatment and employees’ orientation toward retributive/restorative justice.


Using an experimental policy-capturing design that varied five levels of transgression severity (none to very high) within supervisor–subordinate relationship injustice situations, 168 employees rated their retributive/restorative justice preferences. Latent growth curve modeling was used to fit the overall patterns of change.


As hypothesized, the trajectory of restorative justice was convex and progressed in a negative exponential shape, whereas the restorative justice trajectory was concave but followed a less steep positive exponential shape. Results show differing initial levels of restorative and retributive justice, with higher initial levels in retributive justice predicting a greater increase in retributive justice as treatment becomes less fair.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is a threat to the external validity of the results. Scenario-based surveys may not fully generalize to actual organizational situations.

Practical implications

These findings help managers to understand how unjust treatment can shape employees’ expectations and, thus, address it adequately. This is important to retain qualified personnel and to minimize workplace disengagement in the aftermath of poor treatment.

Social implications

Restorative justice is of great importance for minor and moderate violations of justice.


By illustrating different trajectories, this study extends research on restorative and retributive justice in organizations. The results help to understand when people expect restoration and are motivated to punish wrongdoers.




Krys, S. (2020). Goal-directed rumination and its antagonistic effects on problem solving: A two-week diary study.

Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33, 530-544.


Background: The tendency to repetitively and intrusively think about a particular negative event, goal failure, or problem (i.e., goal-directed rumination) is generally associated with impairments in well-being, thus decreasing performance in solving this failure. However, rumination is also associated with higher levels of resources invested in problem solving, likely leading to an improvement in performance. Objectives: The current study thus examines the indirect effect of rumination via various mediators on subjective problem-solving performance in the everyday context. Design: Over a period of two weeks, 147 students completed a brief survey each evening (i.e., diary study). Methods: Data were analyzed by means of a multiple mediation model in the multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) framework. Results: The analyses revealed that perceived stress and negative mood negatively mediated the relationship between rumination and problem solving, while attention and effort positively mediated this relationship. Finally, both a negative direct and total effect of rumination on problem solving was observed. Conclusions: Conclusively, goal-directed rumination exerted a negative indirect effect on subjective problem solving via perceived stress and negative mood, whereas it positively affected problem solving via attention and effort. Possible limitations and implications are discussed.



Krys, S., Otte, K.-P., & Knipfer, K. (2020). Academic performance: A longitudinal study on the role of goal-directed rumination and psychological distress.

Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 33, 545-559.


Background: In this research, we examine the relationship between goal-directed rumination, psychological distress, and performance. Although previous research has largely contributed to our understanding of how these constructs are related, the direction of their relationships remains unclear. Objectives: We argue that goal-directed rumination and psychological distress (conceived as perceived stress and strain) are reciprocally related, and that goal-directed rumination has a positive effect on performance when controlling for the negative effect of psychological distress. Design: We explored these relationships in a longitudinal field study, drawing on multiple sources: self-reports of 147 students on goal-directed rumination and psychological distress and objective ratings of academic performance. Method: Based on structural equation modelling, we employed a random-intercept cross-lagged panel model and hierarchical regressions to examine our hypotheses. Results: We demonstrated that goal-directed rumination predicted perceived stress one week later but not vice versa, while its relationship to strain was less clear. Furthermore, goal-directed rumination positively predicted academic performance when we controlled for psychological distress. Conclusions: We found evidence for a unidirectional relationship between goal-directed rumination and psychological distress, especially for perceived stress. Additionally, we observed that psychological distress diminishes the beneficial effect of goal-directed rumination on academic performance.

Journal Artikel von 2019

Konradt, U., Brombacher, S., Garbers, Y., & Otte, K.-P. (2019). Enhancing student’s self-leadership through a positive psychology intervention? a randomized controlled trial using an idiographic perspective.

International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 4(3), 149-167. doi: 10.1007/s41042-019-00023-6


Positive psychology interventions have been shown to increase individual well-being and happiness at a nomothetic level. We expand our understanding of their potential impact on individual’s self-leadership by adopting an idiographic approach. Moreover, we compare that effect with that of a goal-setting intervention. In a diary study using a randomized controlled design, 60 undergraduates were surveyed daily for 14 consecutive days before an exam and were assigned to one of three conditions: a “three good things” (TGT) intervention in which participants wrote down three positive things they had experienced during the day before going to bed; a “goal-setting” (GS) intervention in which they wrote down three learning goals for the next day; or a placebo control condition. Dynamic modeling of time series revealed that students in the TGT and the GS intervention significantly increased their self-leadership across time at a small to medium effect size. Students in the placebo control group showed no significant change. Contrary to expectations, the TGT intervention was not more strongly associated with self-related strategies, and the GS intervention was not more strongly associated with task-related strategies. This study demonstrates the value of a brief positive psychology intervention, which is comparably effective as a goal-setting intervention in fostering individual self-leadership in academic achievement settings.



Journal Artikel von 2018

Otte, K.-P., Konradt, U., & Oldeweme, M. (2018). Effective team reflection: The role of quality and quantity.

Small Group Research, 49, 739-766. doi:10.1177/1046496418804898


In the present research, we distinguished between quantity and quality aspects of team reflection and examine how they relate to team performance improvement. We hypothesized that teams that reflect little, but deeply and thoroughly show greater performance improvements than teams that reflect a lot but on a superficial level. Additionally, we examined the extent to which team performance will improve if teams engage in both quality and quantity in reflection in different extents and whether implementation explained additional variance in team performance. We examined these issues in a sample of 46 three-person teams in a lab-based hidden profile setting, using a repeated measure design. The results from Bayesian structural equation modelling confirmed our hypotheses. Additionally, polynomial regression revealed that performance improved most when teams focused exclusively on the quality of team reflection and weakest when teams tried to engage in quality and quantity of reflection in the same extent.

Journal Artikel von 2017

Otte, K.-P., Konradt, U., Garbers, Y., & Schippers, M. C. (2017). Development and validation of the REMINT: A reflection measure for individuals and teams.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 299-313. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1261826U


A growing number of studies have investigated the role of team reflexivity, the extent to which teams reflect on and adapt their functioning. However, the way team reflexivity has been conceptualized and operationalized reveals several weaknesses, in particular the conception as a unidimensional construct. To provide greater conceptual clarity, we therefore propose a team reflexivity framework that integrates four interacting but distinct reflexive processes. In four studies, we focus on reflection as a fundamental reflexive process, and develop and validate an extended multidimensional reflection measure that captures the relevant dimensions of quality and quantity of reflection and the key transition processes of information seeking and information evaluation. Moreover, in order to delineate two common composition methods, we develop and validate a direct consensus and a referent-shift consensus version of the reflection measure. Data collected from a total of 803 students and employees in four studies revealed excellent construct validity, as well as good nomological validity (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, we found evidence of the criterion-related validity at the team level (Study 3) and the individual level (Study 4). Together, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our measure, revealing consistent relations with outcome measures and diverse behavioural indicators across different contexts.


Konradt, U., Garbers, Y., Böge, M., Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2017). Antecedents and consequences of fairness perceptions in personnel selection: A three-year longitudinal study.

Group & Organization Management, 24, 113–146. doi: 10.1177/1059601115617665 


Drawing on Gilliland’s (1993) selection fairness framework, we examined antecedents and behavioral effects of procedural fairness perceptions of applicants before, during, and after a personnel selection procedure using a six-wave longitudinal research design. Results showed that both perceived post-test fairness and pre-feedback fairness perceptions are related to job offer acceptance and job performance after 18-months, but not job performance after 36-months. Pre-test and post-test procedural fairness perceptions were mainly related to formal characteristics and interpersonal treatment, whereas pre-feedback fairness perceptions were related with formal characteristics and explanations. The impact of fairness attributes of formal characteristics and interpersonal treatment diminished over time, while attributes of explanation were only associated with pre-feedback fairness. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications for fairness research and for hiring organizations.

Journal Artikel von 2016

Konradt, U., & Eckardt, G. (2016). Short-term and long-term relations among reflection and performance in teams: Evidence from a four-wave longitudinal study.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25, 804–818.


Previous theory and research suggest that team reflection is beneficial for team performance. We argue that results remain inconclusive because prior studies have not accounted for the dynamic nature of this relationship. This paper addresses this research gap by examining time-specific relationships among variables and the intra-team variability of changes across time. In a four-wave longitudinal field study with 97 teams (N = 453 team members) performing a business simulation task, short-term (i.e., autoregressive, cross-lagged effects) and long-term (i.e., latent trajectories) relationships between team reflection and performance were explored. We found evidence that reflection had negative autoregressive effects and that there were direct positive short-term relationships between reflection and performance. Reflection trajectories were seen to decline across time and performance trajectories to increase across time. In addition, teams with either low initial reflection or low initial performance showed higher increases in reflection across time, whilst higher increase in reflection was negatively related to change in performance. Findings are discussed with respect to how they extend the previous literature and what directions they suggest for future research.


Konradt, U., Garbers, Y., Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2016). Patterns of change in fairness perceptions during the hiring process. 

International Journal of Assessment and Selection, 24, 246–259. doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12144


The justice literature, to date, shows that changes in fairness perceptions over time are consequential for job attitudes. However, few studies have been directed at explicating how fairness perceptions change over time or individual differences in patterns of change. The present research attempts to fill this gap by exploring patterns of temporal changes in fairness perceptions toward the selection process during a hiring process and potential determinants for such change. In a 3-wave longitudinal study of the entire hiring process (pre-, in-, and post-process) using a latent growth mixture modeling approach, different patterns of change in perceived fairness were modeled. In addition, the role of Big Five personality factors to predict classes of temporal patterns was examined. Results suggest that, on average, fairness perceptions declined in a non-linear way over time, with high initial levels of fairness perception corresponding to a lower rate of decline, and vice versa. Four unique classes of applicants exhibiting different initial scores and growth of fairness perceptions were identified, which were predicted by the personality factors of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for fairness theory and future research.


Schwibbe, A., Kothe, C., Hampe, W., & Konradt, U. (2016). Acquisition of dental skills in preclinical technique courses - Influence of spatial and manual abilities.

Advances in Health Sciences Education, 21, 841-857. doi: 10.1007/s10459-016-9670-0


60 years of research have not added up to a concordant evaluation of the influence of spatial and manual ability on dental skill acquisition. In a longitudinal dataset we used Ackerman’s theory of ability determinants of skill acquisition to explain the influence of spatial visualization and manual dexterity on task performance of dental students in two consecutive preclinical technique courses. We measured spatial and manual ability of applicants to Hamburg Dental School by means of a multiple choice test on Technical Aptitude and a wire-bending test, respectively. Preclinical dental technique tasks were categorized as consistent-simple and inconsistent-complex based on their contents. For analysis we used robust regression to circumvent typical limitations in dental studies like small sample size and non-normal residual distributions. We found that manual, but not spatial ability exhibited a moderate influence on performance in consistent-simple tasks during dental skill acquisition in preclinical dentistry. Both abilities revealed a moderate relationship with performance in inconsistent-complex tasks. These findings support the hypotheses which we had postulated on the basis of Ackerman’s work. Therefore spatial as well as manual ability are required for the acquisition of dental skills in preclinical technique courses. Both abilities should be addressed in addition to grade point average and science knowledge in dental admission procedures and in trainings of dental first year students.


Konradt, U., & Garbers, Y. (2016). The role of job and family involvement for satisfaction in job and family: A longitudinal study.

Journal of Psychology, 224, 15-22. doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a0000234


Yet to come...


Konradt, U., Otte, K.-P., Schippers, M. C., &  Steenfatt, C. (2016). Reflexivity in teams - A review and new perspectives.

The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150, 153–172. doi:10.1080/00223980.2015.1050977


Team reflexivity posits that the extent to which teams reflect upon and adapt their functioning is positively related to team performance. While remarkable progress has been made to provide evidence of this relationship, the underlying framework is missing elements of current theoretical streams for analyzing and describing teamwork, leaving the diversity of effects of team reflexivity often untouched. In this paper, we present an update for this framework, by reviewing previous research on reflexivity, addressing gaps in the literature, and revising the original model by integrating feedback and dynamic team effectiveness frameworks for describing temporal developments of reflexivity. We furthermore propose a new dimensional structure for reflexivity, relying on prior work conceptualizing teams as information-processing systems that learn and advance through social-cognitive elements. Our model is therefore not only suitable for explaining the diverse set of relationships between team reflexivity on outcomes, but also provides valuable directions for viewing reflexivity as process that takes place during both transition and action phases of teamwork. We conclude with implications for managers, identify limitations, and propose an agenda for further research into this area. This paper contributes an extended perspective relevant for further theory development and for effectively managing reflexivity in teams.

Journal Artikel von 2015

Konradt, U., Schippers, M. C., Garbers, Y., & Steenfatt, C. (2015). Effects of guided reflexivity and team feedback on team performance improvement: The role of team regulatory processes and cognitive emergent states. 

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 777–795. doi:10.1080/1359432X.2015.1005608


The effectiveness of decision-making teams depends largely on the quality of information processing. Prior research has shown that guided team reflexivity and team feedback are important means of advancing team information processing and outcomes. However, the nature of the relationships, and how these relate to team regulatory processes, cognitive emergent states, and ultimately team performance, is currently poorly understood. Drawing on reflexivity and team information-processing theory, we proposed and found that teams which received guided team reflexivity or a combination of both guided reflexivity and feedback showed higher levels of actual reflection than teams which received neither a reflexivity intervention nor feedback. Conditional process analysis showed that the effects of team reflection on team performance improvement were mediated by a path from shared team mental models to shared task mental models and to adaptation. Finally, we also expected that team reflection would be lower in virtual teams than in face-to-face teams. These hypotheses were tested experimentally among 98 student teams that communicated either face-to-face or virtual (via chat) while completing a collective decision-making task. The information distribution among team members constituted a hidden profile. The results supported all our hypotheses, except for the one relating to virtuality.

Journal Artikel von 2014

Ellwart, T., Konradt, U., & Rack, O. (2014). Team mental models of expertise location: Validation of a field survey measure. 

Small Group Research, 45, 119–153. doi:10.1177/1046496414521303


This research provides and validates a field survey measure of team mental models (TMMs) on the location of team member expertise. The measure integrates two important aspects into the expertise location TMM Index: (a) the quality of meta-knowledge about experts within the team, and (b) team consensus regarding within-team expertise. Complementary to content-specific TMM approaches, this measure can be applied across different team and task types as a screening indicator in organizational surveys. To validate the TMM Index, an experimental study (n = 120, 40 teams) and a longitudinal field study (n = 130, 37 teams) were conducted. Both studies provide evidence that the TMM Index is a reliable screening indicator that corresponds to content-specific accuracy and consensus scores. Multilevel analyses revealed that the TMM Index predicts team performance (self- and other ratings), team coordination, and individual variables such as knowledge credibility and self-efficacy over time.

Garbers, Y., & Konradt, U. (2014). The effect of financial incentives on performance: A quantitative review of individual and team-based financial incentives. 

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87, 102–137. doi:10.1111/joop.12039


We meta-analysed 146 studies (n = 31,861) to examine the effects of individual and team-based financial incentives on peoples’ performance and to explore potential moderators. The overall effect size of the individual incentives (116 studies) was positive (g = 0.32). Moderator analyses revealed effect sizes to be larger for field studies (g = 0.34) than for laboratory studies (g = 0.29), larger for qualitative (g = 0.39) than quantitative performance measures (g = 0.28), and smaller for less complex tasks (g = 0.19). Results on team-based incentives (30 studies) indicated a positive effect regarding team-based rewards on performance (g = 0.45), with equitably distributed rewards resulting in higher performance than equally distributed rewards. This relationship was larger in field studies and smaller for less complex tasks. In addition, our results show that the effect of team-based rewards depends on team size and gender composition. Implications for organizational rewards and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Konradt, U. (2014). Toward a theory of dispersed leadership in teams: Model, findings, and directions for future research. 

Leadership, 10, 289–307. doi:10.1177/1742715013481374


This paper addresses a new perspective how leadership can be conceptualized in times of dispersed and team working structures. The Dispersed Leadership Theory in Teams proposes three distinguishing types of leadership, which include interactional leadership exerted by leaders; team leadership provided by team members; and structural leadership influenced by work and organizational factors (i.e., task, organizational structures, and customers). It is assumed that these three types of leadership simultaneously exert influence on follower’s attitudes and behaviors in teams. We outline the theory, review empirical evidence based on the model, and discuss the strengths and limitations. In conclusion, we discuss relevant emerging topics for future studies.


Journal Artikel von 2013

Wiedow, A., Konradt, U., Ellwart, T., & Steenfatt, C. (2013). Direct and indirect effects of team process improvement on team outcomes: A multiple mediation analysis. 

Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17, 232–251. doi:10.1108/02683941111139029 [*Equally Contributing Authors]


We examined direct and indirect (i.e., mediating) effects of team learning on team outcomes in a laboratory-based experimental study as well as a cross-sectional field study. Using task knowledge and trust as mediators, team outcomes were measured in terms of proximal (coordination quality) and distal outcomes (team performance). Both studies showed direct effects in the way that team learning leads to better coordination quality and team performance. This effect was mediated by both task knowledge and, except for the experimental study, by trust. Limitations, implications for team learning, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Konradt, U., & Christophersen, T. (2013). Measuring psychological constructs by single-item scales - Answers to reviewers' comments and additional questions. 

Behaviour & Information Technology, 25, 331–333. doi:10.1093/iwc/iwt004


This article is an answer to a commentary to Christophersen and Konradt’s (2011) study on a single-item measure of online store usability. The authors suggest that while their research has demonstrated the psychometric quality of their measure, greater efforts should be made to perform more rigorous tests of measures by applying main and supplemental psychometric quality criteria. In addition, it is suggested that future research should also (1) examine the type of construct by using formative and reflective measurement models; (2) put forward relevant cognitive processes during answering questions; and (3) make use of behavioral and physiological data to complement user’s self-reports.

Konradt, U., Warszta, T., & Ellwart, T. (2013). Fairness perceptions in web-based selection: Impact on applicants’ pursuit intentions, recommendation intentions, and intentions to reapply. 

International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21, 155–169. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12026


This study examines the Gilliland (1993) model of applicants’ reactions to selection procedures in a web-based context, revealing new theoretical and empirical insights. We extend existing research by further considering a reflective first-order formative second-order model consisting of three second-order justice factors of formal characteristics, explanation, and interpersonal treatment modeled by 11 formative indicators representing the procedural justice rules. Partial least squares path modeling analysis revealed that formal characteristics and interpersonal treatment are positively related to perceptions of process fairness in web-based selection. Most salient procedural justice rules revealed were treatment of the applicants, opportunity to perform, propriety of questions, and reconsideration opportunity. Furthermore, process fairness which was positively related to applicants’ reactions, fully mediated the relationship between justice factors and applicants’ reactions.

Journal Artikel von 2012

Andressen, P., Konradt, U., & Neck, C. P. (2012). The relation between self-leadership and transformational leadership: Competing models and the moderating role of virtuality. 

Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 19, 66–80. doi:10.1177/1548051811425047


This study tries to integrate self-leadership in a traditional leadership model. Therefore it examines the relationship between self-leadership, transformational leadership, and work motivation (i.e. self-efficacy and instrumentality) relative to job performance and affective commitment. In addition the influence of work environment is of interest for a comprehensive leadership model. Thus, the moderating role of virtuality was examined. Three competing models which are theoretically plausible are compared: Self-leadership acting (1) as a process factor mediating the relation between transformational leadership and employees’ motivation, (2) as an input factor, simultaneously with transformational leadership, and (3) as a process factor mediating the relation between work motivation and job performance/ affective commitment. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that self-leadership is a process factor that mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ motivation. Results further suggest that self-leadership has a higher influence on motivation in virtual work structures compared to co-located work structures. Limitations, implications for management, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Christophersen, T., & Konradt, U. (2012). Development and validation of a formative and a reflective measure for the assessment of online store usability. 

Behaviour & Information Technology, 31, 839–857. doi:10.1080/0144929x.2010.529165


The aim of this study was to develop and validate a reflective and a formative measure of online store usability. Perceived usability, related constructs (i.e. trust and aesthetics), controls (i.e. user and product characteristics), and consequences (i.e. intention to buy and purchase) were examined within a nomological network. 378 participants completed an experimental study. Each participant visited two out of 35 online stores and rated the usability and intention to buy for both stores. Purchase behavior was determined by combining the participants' reward with the decision to buy. Results from PLS structural equation modeling indicate that the formative usability measure forms a valid set of items for the user-based assessment of online store usability and that both measures are positively related to the intention to buy, suggesting criterion validity. As hypothesized, positive relationships of usability with trust and aesthetics were supported. Furthermore, both measures provided a good prediction of the decision to buy, indicating overall predictive validity. Limitations and implications for usability measures and human-computer interaction research are discussed.

Hauschildt, K., & Konradt, U. (2012). Self-Leadership and team members' work role performance. 

Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27, 497–517. doi:10.1108/02683941211235409


Purpose – The purpose of the present study is to extend previous research on self-leadership by investigating the relationship between self-leadership and work role performance of team members including individual task and team member proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity. Moreover, the moderating role of collectivism is examined.

Design/methodology – Organizational team members' self-ratings of self-leadership and six work role performance dimensions (i.e., individual task and team member proficiency, adaptivity, and proactivity, respectively) were collected in a cross-sectional study and were analyzed using Partial Least Squares modeling.

Findings – Results indicate positive relationships between self-leadership and proficiency, adaptivity and proactivity directed both at the individual task and the team. Results also suggest that collectivism moderated the relation between self-leadership and team member proficiency.

Originality/value – Previous research is extended by providing first evidence of self-leadership’s relationship with a differentiated set of individual task and team member work roles including adaptive and proactive performance aspects.

Practical implications – Managerial implications for personnel selection, leadership, training, and organizational development efforts are provided.

Hauschildt, K., & Konradt, U. (2012). The effect of self-leadership on individual’s job performance in teams. 

Leadership, 8, 145–168. doi:10.1177/1742715011429588


This research examined the effect of self-leadership strategies on individuals’ work role performance in teams. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, self-leadership, task interdependence and situational uncertainty were manipulated in two studies. Moreover, the moderating effect of psychological collectivism orientation on the self-leadership performance relation was explored. Results from multilevel analyses revealed that in Study 1, self-leadership had a positive effect on individual task and team member work role performance. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by showing positive effects of self-leadership on individuals’ team member proficiency, adaptivity and proactivity in teams. Furthermore, collectivism orientation moderates the effect of self-leadership on team member proficiency. Implications of the findings are identified, limitations are discussed, and areas for future research are proposed.

Konradt, U., Held, H., Christophersen, T., & Nerdinger, F. W. (2012). The role of usability in e-commerce service. 

International Journal of E-Business Research , 8, 56–75. doi:10.4018/jebr.2012100104


We examined the impact of perceived usability of websites of commercial service vendors on consumer’s affective, intentional, and behavioral variables. Reflective and formative usability measures were used within a nomological network of predictors (trust, reputation, and perceived fun), mediators (user satisfaction, and intention to use), decision to choose as the criteria, product involvement as a moderator, and controls. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that usability holds both direct and indirect paths, via trust and perceived fun, to user satisfaction. User satisfaction was positively related to the intention to use and partially mediated the relation between usability and intention to use. Furthermore, product involvement does not moderate the relation between usability and intention to use and the relation between user satisfaction and intention to use. Finally, intention to use provided an excellent prediction of the decision to choose. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Konradt, U., Lueckel, L., & Ellwart, T. (2012). The role of usability in business-to-business e-commerce systems: Predictors and its impact on user’s strain and commercial transactions. 

Advances in Human-Computer Interaction. Open access article ID 948693. doi:10.1155/2012/948693


This study examines the impact of organizational antecedences (i.e., organizational support, and information policy) and technical antecedences (i.e., subjective server response time, and objective server response time) to perceived usability, perceived strain, and commercial transactions (i.e. purchases) in business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. Data were gathered from a web-based study with 491 employees using e-procurement bookseller portals. Structural equation modeling results revealed positive relationships of organizational support and information policy, and negative relationships of subjective server response time to usability after controlling for users’ age, gender, and computer experience. Perceived usability held negative relationships to perceived strain and fully mediated the relation between the three significant antecedences and perceived strain while purchases were not predicted. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications and consequences for successfully designing and implementing B2B e-commerce information systems.

Strohmeier, S., Bondarouk, T., & Konradt, U. (2012). Editorial: Electronic human resource management: Transformation of HRM? 

German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management , 26, 215–217.

Journal Artikel von 2011

Ellwart, T., & Konradt, U. (2011). Formative versus reflective measurement: An illustration using the work-family balance construct. 

Journal of Psychology, 145, 391–417. doi:10.1080/00223980.2011.580388


The aim of this paper is to propose the formative measurement approach which can be used in various constructs of applied psychology. To illustrate our approach, we will (a) discuss the distinction between commonly used principal factor (reflective) measures in comparison to the composite (formative) latent variable model which is often applied in other disciplines like marketing or engineering, and (b) point out the advantages and limitations of formative specifications using the example of the work-family balance construct. Data collected from two large cross-sectional field studies confirm the reliability and validity of formative WFB measures as well as its predictive value regarding criteria of work-family balance (i.e., job satisfaction, family satisfaction, and life satisfaction). Finally, the specific informational value of each formative indicator will be demonstrated and discussed in terms of practical implications for the assessment in different psychological fields.

Steenfatt, C., & Konradt, U. (2011). Prozessoptimierung in virtuellen Teams: Bedeutung, Wirkung und Maßnahmen von Feedback und Reflexivität. [Process improvement in virtual teams: Relevance, effects and practical implications of feedback and reflexivity]. 

Wirtschaftspsychologie, 3, 52–61.


Whereas research predominantly focused on examining effects of virtual teamwork on coordination and communication processes, investigations aiming at improving virtual teamwork were relatively sparse. Team process improvement which consists of seeking and giving feedback, reflecting on team-related work processes and the consequent adaptation of altered work procedures, has shown its effectiveness in face-to-face teams. The aim of this article is to emphasize the importance of process improvement for virtual teams, and to summarize the sparse empirical evidences of feedback and reflection in virtual teams. At the end of this article, we discuss theoretical and practical implications of process improvement in virtual teams.

Rack, O., Ellwart, T., Hertel, G., & Konradt, U. (2011). Effects of team-based rewards in computer-mediated groups. 

Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26, 419–438. doi:10.1108/02683941111139029


Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to compare effects of different monetary team-based reward strategies on performance, pay satisfaction, and communication behavior in computer-mediated groups.

Design/methodology – In a laboratory experiment, thirty-two groups of undergraduate students, each consisting of three individuals, interacted electronically and performed a consensus-reaching task. Team-based incentives were distributed either equally (each team member received an equal share) or equitably (each team members’ share depended on her/his individual contribution). A control group received no team-based (or other) incentives.

Findings – Hierarchical multilevel analyses revealed that both types of team-based rewards increased team members’ motivation and pay satisfaction compared to the control condition. Moreover, the effects of team-based rewards on performance were moderated by group member’s assertiveness. In addition, team-based rewards lead to more cooperative and task-oriented communication in the computer-mediated groups. Finally, equally divided rewards led to higher pay satisfaction on average than equitably divided incentives.

Implications – This study shows that team-based rewards have positive effects not only on performance but also on communication behavior in computer-mediated groups. However, these effects should be considered cautiously as they might be qualified by personality aspects of the team members. Moreover, whereas no major differences were found between equity and equality principles in terms of performance, the latter seems to be preferable when satisfaction is a major issue in teams.

Konradt, U., Syperek, S., & Hertel, G. (2011). Testing on the Internet: Faking in a web-based self-administered personality measure. 

Journal of Business and Media Psychology, 2, 1–10.


This experimental study examined the effect of faking in a self-administered occupational personality questionnaire on the World Wide Web and explored whether the degree of faking is related to Self-monitoring and login times. Using a between subjects design, employees were instructed to “answer honestly”, to “fake good”, or to answer as if applying for a job. Results revealed faking in the web-based personality questionnaire for two out of five dimensions (i.e., conscientiousness and self-motivation). Age was found to moderate the degree of faking with older people showing a higher degree of faking. Controlling for age and level of education, results revealed that high self-monitors demonstrated more faking compared to low self-monitors. Finally, slow responders showed higher degrees of faking compared to fast responders. We also discuss implications for online personnel selection and suggestions for future research.

Christophersen, T., & Konradt, U. (2011). Reliability, validity, and sensitivity of a single-item measure of online store usability. 

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69, 269–280. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2010.10.005


An experimental laboratory study with field characteristics was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of a single-item measure for the assessment of online store usability from the customer’s point of view. Each of the 378 participants visited two out of 35 online stores and performed three shopping related tasks. Usability was rated using a single-item and an eight-item scale. Besides trust in the online store and aesthetics, the participant’s intention to buy was measured. Both factor analysis and the correction for attenuation formula revealed an adequate reliability of the single-item scale. Convergent validity of the single-item measure for usability was supported by positive correlations with both trust and aesthetics. Positive correlation between the single-item and the intention to buy indicated high predictive validity of this measure. Finally, sensitivity of the single-item measure was indicated by differences in usability ratings for the 35 online stores.

Journal Artikel von 2010/2009

Wiedow, A., & Konradt, U. (2010). Two-dimensional structure of team process improvement: Team reflection and team adaptation. Small Group Research, 42, 32–54. doi:10.1177/1046496410377358 [Abstract]

Konradt, U., Andressen, P., & Ellwart, T. (2009). Self-leadership in organizational teams: A multilevel analysis of moderators and mediators. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 322–346. doi:10.1080/13594320701693225 [Abstract]

Journal Artikel von 2008

Christophersen, T., & Konradt, U. (2008). The development of a formative and reflective scale for the assessment of on-line store usability. Journal of Systemic, Cybernetics and Informatics , 6, 36–41. [Abstract]


Konradt, U., Christophersen, T., & Ellwart, T. (2008). Erfolgsfaktoren des Lerntransfers unter computergestütztem Lernen: Der Einfluss von Lernstrategien, Lernmotivation und Lernorganisation [Success Factors of Learning Transfer in Computer-Assisted Learning: The Impact of Learning Strategies, Motivation, and the Learning Setting]. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 7, 90–103. doi:10.1026/1617-6391.7.2.90 [Abstract]

Journal Artikel von 2007

Andressen, P., & Konradt, U. (2007). Messung von Selbstführung: Psychometrische Überprüfung der deutschsprachigen Version des RSLQ [Measuring self-leadership: Psychometric test of the German version of the RSLQ]. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 6, 117–128. doi:10.1026/1617-6391.6.3.117 [Abstract]

Ellwart, T., & Konradt, U. (2007). Wissensverteilung und Wissenskoordination in Gruppen - Überprüfung deutschsprachiger Skalen unter computergestützter Gruppenarbeit [Knowledge distribution and knowledge coordination in groups - an examination of German-language scales under computer-assisted teamwork]. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 51, 128–135. doi:10.1026/0932-4089.51.3.128 [Abstract]

Hoch, J., Andreßen, P., & Konradt, U. (2007). E-Leadership und die Bedeutung Verteilter Führung [E-Leadership and the relevance of distributed leadership]. Wirtschaftspsychologie, 9, 50–58. [Abstract]

Konradt, U., & Hoch, J. (2007). Work roles and leadership functions of managers in virtual teams. International Journal of E-Collaboration, 3, 16–35. doi:10.4018/jec.2007040102 [Abstract]

Journal Artikel von 2006 und früher

Geister, G., Konradt, U., & Hertel, G. (2006). Effects of process motivation, satisfaction, and performance in virtual teams. Small Group Research, 37, 459–489. doi:10.1177/1046496406292337 [Abstract]

Hertel, G., Konradt, U., & Voss, K. (2006). Competencies for virtual teamwork: Development and validation of a web-based selection tool for members of distributed teams. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15, 477–504. doi:10.1080/13594320600908187 [Abstract]

Konradt, U., Christophersen, T., & Schäffer-Kuelz, U. (2006). Predicting user satisfaction, strain and system usage of employee self services: A partial least squares analysis. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64, 1141–1153. doi: [Abstract]

Konradt, U., & Fary, Y. (2006). Determinanten der Motivation und der Bereitschaft zur Teilnahme an Fragebogenstudien [Determinants of the motivation and the readiness for the participation in questionnaire studies]. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 214, 87–96. doi:10.1026/0044-3409.214.2.87 [Abstract]

Konradt, U., & Rack, O. (2006). Personalrekrutierung im Internet - Einfluss der Qualität von Recruiting-Sites auf die Arbeitgeberattraktivität [Internet recruitment - Corporate web site quality as determinants of organizational attraction]. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 5, 53–59. doi:10.1026/1617-6391.5.2.53 [Abstract]

Hertel, G., Geister, S., & Konradt, U. (2005). Managing virtual teams: A review of current empirical research. Human Resource Management Review, 15, 69–95. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2005.01.002 [Abstract]