Work and Organisational Psychology

Journal articles 2014

Ellwart, T., Konradt, U., & Rack, O. (2014). Team mental models of expertise location: Validation of a field survey measure. 

Small Group Research, 45, 119–153. doi:10.1177/1046496414521303


This research provides and validates a field survey measure of team mental models (TMMs) on the location of team member expertise. The measure integrates two important aspects into the expertise location TMM Index: (a) the quality of meta-knowledge about experts within the team, and (b) team consensus regarding within-team expertise. Complementary to content-specific TMM approaches, this measure can be applied across different team and task types as a screening indicator in organizational surveys. To validate the TMM Index, an experimental study (n = 120, 40 teams) and a longitudinal field study (n = 130, 37 teams) were conducted. Both studies provide evidence that the TMM Index is a reliable screening indicator that corresponds to content-specific accuracy and consensus scores. Multilevel analyses revealed that the TMM Index predicts team performance (self- and other ratings), team coordination, and individual variables such as knowledge credibility and self-efficacy over time.

Garbers, Y., & Konradt, U. (2014). The effect of financial incentives on performance: A quantitative review of individual and team-based financial incentives. 

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87, 102–137. doi:10.1111/joop.12039


We meta-analysed 146 studies (n = 31,861) to examine the effects of individual and team-based financial incentives on peoples’ performance and to explore potential moderators. The overall effect size of the individual incentives (116 studies) was positive (g = 0.32). Moderator analyses revealed effect sizes to be larger for field studies (g = 0.34) than for laboratory studies (g = 0.29), larger for qualitative (g = 0.39) than quantitative performance measures (g = 0.28), and smaller for less complex tasks (g = 0.19). Results on team-based incentives (30 studies) indicated a positive effect regarding team-based rewards on performance (g = 0.45), with equitably distributed rewards resulting in higher performance than equally distributed rewards. This relationship was larger in field studies and smaller for less complex tasks. In addition, our results show that the effect of team-based rewards depends on team size and gender composition. Implications for organizational rewards and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Konradt, U. (2014). Toward a theory of dispersed leadership in teams: Model, findings, and directions for future research. 

Leadership, 10, 289–307. doi:10.1177/1742715013481374


This paper addresses a new perspective how leadership can be conceptualized in times of dispersed and team working structures. The Dispersed Leadership Theory in Teams proposes three distinguishing types of leadership, which include interactional leadership exerted by leaders; team leadership provided by team members; and structural leadership influenced by work and organizational factors (i.e., task, organizational structures, and customers). It is assumed that these three types of leadership simultaneously exert influence on follower’s attitudes and behaviors in teams. We outline the theory, review empirical evidence based on the model, and discuss the strengths and limitations. In conclusion, we discuss relevant emerging topics for future studies.